Þriðjudagur 10.08.2021 - 07:46 - Rita ummæli

Leiðréttingar við grein Stefáns Snævarrs um mig

Stefán Snævarr birti í gær grein í nettímaritinu Stundinni um skoðanir mínar á tengslum fasisma og sósíalisma. Hann segir þar:

Frjálshyggjumaðurinn Ludwig von Mises lofsöng fasismann ítalska árið 1927 og sagði (í enskri þýðingu úr þýsku): “It cannot be denied that Fascism and similar movements aiming at the establishment of dictatorships are full of the best intentions and that their intervention has, for the moment, saved European civilization. The merit that Fascism has thereby won for itself will live on eternally in history” (Mises (1985): 51). Gerir þetta frjálshyggjuna að systur  nasismann og fasismans? Hannes nefnir ekki þessa athugasemd Mises í bók sinni Twenty-Four Conservative-Liberal Thinkers (2 bindi).

Þetta er rangt. Ég skrifaði langt mál um þessa athugasemd Mises á bls. 94–95 í seinna bindi bókar minnar:

For Mises, a choice always involves trade-offs. Sometimes it is between a greater and a lesser evil. This explains his comment on fascism that left-wing intellectuals are fond of quoting: ‘It cannot be denied that Fascism and similar movements aiming at the establishment of dictatorships are full of the best intentions and that their intervention has, for the moment, saved European civilization. The merit that Fascism has thereby won for itself will live on eternally in history.’ But Mises should not be quoted out of context, because he continues: ‘But though its policy has brought salvation for the moment, it is not of the kind which could promise continued success. Fascism was an emergency makeshift. To view it as something more would be a fatal error.’ Mises’ point is the plausible one that for a liberal faced with two evils, fascism and communism, fascism seems the lesser one, not least because it is possibly reversible. It is authoritarian rather than totalitarian: It aims not at total control of mind and body, but rather of body alone. Because it does not abolish private property rights to the means of production, it does not unite all economic control in one body. What Mises was referring to in the 1920s was that the ex-socialist Benito Mussolini in Italy and Admiral Miklós Horthy in Hungary hindered communist takeovers, although in Hungary the communists actually ruled by terror for a few months. Later examples might be Francisco Franco in Spain and Augusto Pinochet in Chile. Be that as it may, European fascism of the 1920s was quite different to Hitler’s national socialism with its horrible antisemitism. It should also be pointed out that in the 1920s Austria was surrounded by hostile neighbours and that her only potential ally and protector then was Mussolini’s Fascist Italy.

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Höfundur

Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson er prófessor í stjórnmálafræði í Háskóla Íslands og hefur verið gistifræðimaður við fjölmarga erlenda háskóla, þar á meðal Stanford-háskóla og UCLA. Hann fæddist 1953, lauk doktorsprófi í stjórnmálafræði frá Oxford-háskóla 1985 og er höfundur fjölmargra bóka um stjórnmál, sögu og heimspeki á íslensku, ensku og sænsku.


Nýjustu bækur hans eru Íslenskir kommúnistar 1918–1998, 624 bls. myndskreytt ágrip af sögu íslensku kommúnista- og sósíalistahreyfingarinnar allt til endaloka Alþýðubandalagsins, sem Almenna bókafélagið gaf út 2011, The Icelandic Fisheries: Sustainable and Profitable, sem Háskólaútgáfan gaf út 2015, og Twenty Four Conservative-Liberal Thinkers, sem hugveitan New Direction í Brüssel gaf út í tveimur bindum í árslok 2020. Hann hefur gefið út átta bókarlangar skýrslur á ensku. Sjö eru fyrir hugveituna New Direction í Brüssel: The Nordic Models og In Defence of Small States (2016); Lessons for Europe from the 2008 Icelandic Bank Collapse, Green Capitalism: How to Protect the Environment by Defining Property Rights og Voices of the Victims: Towards a Historiography of Anti-Communist Literature (2017); Why Conservatives Should Support the Free Market og Spending Other People’s Money: A Critique of Rawls, Piketty and Other Redistributionists (2018). Ein skýrslan er fyrir fjármálaráðuneytið, Foreign Factors in the 2008 Bank Collapse (2018). Hann er ritstjóri Safns til sögu kommúnismans, ritraðar Almenna bókafélagsins um alræðisstefnu, en nýjasta bókin í þeirri ritröð er Til varnar vestrænni menningu: Ræður sex rithöfunda 1950–1958. Árin 2017 og 2018 birtust eftir hann þrjár ritgerðir á ensku um frjálshyggju á Íslandi, Liberalism in Iceland in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Anti-Liberal Narratives about Iceland 1991–2017 og Icelandic Liberalism and Its Critics: A Rejoinder to Stefan Olafsson.  

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